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Abraham Maslow was an American psychologist born in 1908 on the 1st of April located in Brooklyn, New York, who created the system of need-based hierarchy to explain human motivation. He is most renowned for: Hierarchy of requirements, The humanistic psychology pioneer who was the founder, Peak experiences, and Self-actualization.
Maslow’s hierarchy is a theory of motivation in psychology based on a five-tier structure of human needs. It is typically depicted as hierarchical levels in the pyramid. His theory suggested that humans can meet a range of basic requirements that must be fulfilled before moving upwards in the hierarchy to fulfill more emotional, social, and self-actualization requirements.
The requirements are as follows:
1. Biochemical and physiological requirements: include drinking, air, food, shelter, warmth, and sleep. Etc.
2. Security needs: protection from dangers, Law, order, and stability. It is also a way to free yourself from terror.
3. Belonging and love require the qualities of intimacy, friendship, and trust, accepting and giving affection and affection, and being a part of an organization (family or friends and work).
4. Esteem requirements (which Maslow divided into two types: (i) esteem for oneself (dignity accomplishment, dignity self-esteem, mastery, and independence) as well as (ii) the desire to be valued and respected by others (e.g., status and the status of oneself,).
5. Cognitive requirements: Knowledge and understanding and curiosity, as well as the desire for predictability and meaning.
6. Aesthetic needs: the search for beauty and appreciation and balance, harmony, and more
7. Self-actualization is about realizing your potential, self-fulfillment, and seeking the highest personal development and growth level. A desire “to achieve all that one can imagine becoming”(Maslow 1987 (p. 64).
8. Transcendence: requires to be driven by values that go beyond the individual self (e.g., spiritual experiences, mystical ones and inevitable encounters with nature, artistic experiences, sexual experiences giving back to others, research of science, religious faith, etc.)
Metamotivation (Abraham Maslow, 1940s) –
A type of motivation evident in those who have achieved self-actualization is directed toward achieving the maximum potential for personal growth.
Maslow identified self-actualization as a “growth desire” and distinguished it from the other four levels of his hierarchy that he described as “deficiency requirements.” In his theory, if you don’t meet your deficiencies, you’ll suffer unfavorable consequences. A variety of conditions ranging from sickness and hunger to depression and loneliness are consequences of deficiency requirements not being met. In contrast, self-actualization demands are a great way to feel happier and more content, yet you’re not at risk if those needs are not fulfilled. Therefore, self-actualization demands are only considered when the other four requirements are fulfilled.
Maslow (1962) considered that self-actualization could be measured using the notion of peak experiences. It happens when one can see the world and is surrounded by feelings of joy, euphoria, and amazement.
It is crucial to remember that self-actualization is an ongoing process of becoming, not the perfect state, that one can achieve a “happy ever after’ (Hoffman, 1988).
Characteristics of self-actualizes
1. They can perceive reality with ease and can accept uncertainty
2. Accept them and other people as they are.
3. It is spontaneous in thought and inactions;
4. Problem-centered (not self-centered);
5. Unusual sense of humor
6. Ability to view life objectively
7. Very imaginative;
8. Refuse enculturation, but not intentionally unorthodox;
9. Believing in the welfare of the human race;
10. Able to deeply appreciate the fundamental life experiences;
11. Develop deep and satisfying relationships with a handful of people.
12. Peak experiences;
13. Need to be private;
14. Democratic attitudes;
15. High moral/ethical standards.
Self-actualization through self-development:
(a) Experimenting with life as a child with complete concentration and concentration;
(b) Experimenting with new ideas rather than sticking with established pathways;
(c) listening to your thoughts when evaluating your experiences, not relying on the opinions of authority, tradition, or the majority.
(d) Beware of the appearance of (‘game play’) and be honest;
(e) being prepared to be rejected by others if your opinions don’t align with the majority of the population;
(f) Accepting responsibility and putting in the effort;
(g) The challenge is to determine your weaknesses and then be willing to give the defenses up.
1. The first of the id-driven, lower needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are physiological requirements. These most basic human survival requirements include drinking water and food and adequate rest in a comfortable environment, shelter and clothing, general health, and reproduction. Maslow says that these fundamental biological needs should be taken care of before humans move on to the next level of fulfillment.
2. Security needs When one’s physical needs are met, the demands for security and safety are essential. People seek a sense of security, predictability, and order within their lives. These desires can be met by society and family (e.g., police or schools, businesses, or medical health care).
For instance, security for emotional and finances (e.g., social welfare, employment), Law, order, peace of mind, security of property, social stability, well-being, and health (e.g., security against accidents and injuries).
3. Belonging and love require after the security and physiological needs have been met. The third stage of human need is social, and it is about the feeling of belonging. Belongingness is a human’s need to feel connected and has relationships, affiliating, connection, and belonging to an organization.
4. Esteem needs: The ego drives the essential requirements, starting with self-esteem. The main components of self-esteem are self-esteem (the conviction that you are worthy and worthy of respect) and self-esteem (confidence that you have the potential to achieve your personal development and achievements). Maslow states that self-esteem can be divided into two kinds founded on acknowledgment and respect from others and esteem based on self-assessment. Self-confidence and confidence stem from this second kind of self-esteem.
- This theory gives a helpful outline of human requirements and can be applied in the design of products and positioning and pricing (e.g., need for power and status), and retail stores and their designs.
- It also allows marketers to concentrate their advertising appeals to specific needs shared by a significant portion of their targeted market.
- The main issue in Maslow’s hierarchy-of-needs model is that it cannot be verified empirically. There is no method to gauge the degree to which a level of need has to be before the next need can be fulfilled.
- The model is simplistic:
- A single product or service can meet many needs at the same time.
- The model does not have empirical support for the rank-ordering of demands.
- It is also rooted in culture, and therefore, it is not valid across various cultures, and the assumptions behind the hierarchy might be restricted to Western culture.
The limitations of Maslow’s Theory
- It is important to remember that the exact requirements do not govern many employees. Individuals are motivated by different requirements at similar times. It is the most essential unsatisfied and unfulfilled need that drives an individual.
- The theory isn’t scientifically supported.
- The idea is not valid for starving artists since even if the artist’s basic needs aren’t met, he’ll seek recognition and accomplishment.